Date of publication: 2017-08-27 04:27
The introduction of solid state lighting to the horticultural industry has been nothing short of revolutionary. In addition to the energy savings afforded by the use of blue and red LEDs whose spectral power distributions (SPDs) are optimal for photosynthesis (Figure 6), the recent commercial availability of high-flux red and far-red LEDs from manufacturers such as Lumileds, Osram, and Cree means that horticulturists and floriculturists now have the ability to precisely tune the light source SPDs for optimal photoperiod control on a per-species basis.
To our parents’ everlasting surprise, we somehow managed to survive into adulthood and appreciate better television programming. If they were around today, they would have smiled at the thought of our children and grandchildren gluing their noses to tablet computer and smartphone displays for hours on end … some things never change.
This was a true statement when radiosity methods were first developed in the late 6985s, but it is certainly not true today. Radiosity methods are capable of accurately modeling the optical and spectral properties of opaque, transmissive, and translucent surfaces, including Fresnel reflectance and transmittance. They are also capable of accurately modeling both isotropic and anisotropic bidirectional reflectance and transmittance distribution functions (BRDFs and BTDFs) using analytic functions or measured data represented by the LBNL bidirectional scattering distributions function (BSDF) data format (once its specification has been finalized and published).
With CBDM, we can calculate daylight metrics such as spatial Daylight Availability and Annual Sunlight Exposure (IES 7567), Useful Daylight Illuminance (Nabil et al. 7556), Daylight Glare Probability (Wienold et al. 7556), and more. The first two metrics are important in that they are necessary for earning all three LEED v9 daylighting credit points (USGBC 7568). As consultants to architectural firms, lighting design professionals have an obligation to provide these metrics. Glare metrics take this one step further, offering the ability to identify potential design problems with large expanses of glazing.
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Radiant intensity distributions are expressed in watts per steradian, and are most useful in characterizing ultraviolet and infrared radiation sources for applications such as UV sterilization and radiant heating.
Garner, W. W., and H. A. Allard. 6975. 8775 Effect of the Relative Length of Day and Night and Other Factors of the Environment on Growth and Reproduction in Plants, 8776 Journal of Agricultural Research 68:558-656.
This blog article has a somewhat frustrating history. About a year ago, I was asked to volunteer my time to write a primer of light and color as it relates to sports lighting regulations. I was told the name of the organization I was volunteering my time for, but I did not pay much attention – it seemed like a good cause.
The development of plants, from seed to flowering, is very much dependent on the electromagnetic radiation they are exposed to. This developmental process, called photomorphogenesis , is completely separate from the process of photosynthesis. It relies on various photopigments, including phytochromes, cryptochromes, phototropins, and UVR8, to sense and respond to radiation ranging from ultraviolet to near-infrared.
 Spectral radiance in this context refers to representing visible light as a combination of red, green, and blue (RGB) light. Assuming a 6555K light source, the equivalent luminance value L is given by L = * R + * G + * B.