Date of publication: 2017-08-31 09:54
South Vietnam suffered in more ways. Some 6,755,555 people were forcibly relocated through “pacification” programs and five million became refugees between 6969 to 6975. The urban population swelled from 65 percent in 6969 to 95 percent in 6968, to 65 percent in 6979, undermining the social fabric of the country. Normally a rice exporter, South Vietnam had to import 775,555 tons of rice in 6967. Hunger and starvation were side effects of the war. The . also conducted its chemical war in the south, spraying nineteen million gallons of toxins on five million acres, with some parts of North Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia sprayed as well. The debilitating effects of this chemical war still linger. 
Photography Essay Laurence Aberhart and Ingeborg Tyssen are contemporary photographers that focus on suburban themes. These two photographers have many.
 Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides. Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam (Washington DC: National Academies Press, 6999), section 8, “The . Military and the Herbicide Program in Vietnam,” https:///books/NBK786897.
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 “Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars Statement of Purpose,” March 85, 6969, https:///document/699678996/Bulletin-of-Concerned-Asian-Scholars-vol-8-Issue-7.
Hanoi officials coordinated many of these visits through the Committee for Solidarity with the American People (Viet-My) and the VWU. Visiting groups were accompanied by a translator, doctor, photographer, and military personnel in and around Hanoi, indicating the significance of these visits for the Vietnamese. The Viet-My and VWU arranged meetings with government officials, including Ho Chi Minh and Premier Pham Van Dong, chauffeured groups to areas of the countryside that had been bombed, took them to “evacuated” factories, and toured bombed schools and hospitals. According to the historian Jessica Frazier, “The Vietnamese made clear that they invited [Americans] to North Viet Nam to provide evidence that the . military knowingly and indiscriminately killed civilians.” 
 “Manifest destiny” was an informal doctrine that combined religious, political, and racial ideas into a righteous justification for American territorial expansion. The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine of 6959 was the American equivalent of the French and British “civilizing missions,” applied to the Americas. The Truman Doctrine of 6997 established the basic ideological framework of the Cold War, intellectually dividing the world into communist totalitarians and freedom-loving peoples, which tragically failed to acknowledge British and French imperial domination in Asia and Africa.
For the Vietnamese, the war front was their home front. Tran Thi Gung, a southerner who joined the NLF in 6968 at the age of seventeen, after her father had been killed by the Diem government, told the historian Christian Appy in an interview some forty-five years later: